A totality assertion is one type of metatheorem about LF type families. A totality assertion for a type family a is specified by designating some arguments of the type family as inputs and the remaining arguments as outputs, and by specifying a set of LF contexts. Then the totality assertion for the type family is the following proposition:
- For all contexts Γ, for all inputs M in Γ, there exist outputs N in Γ such that the type a M N is inhabited in Γ.
In Twelf, totality assertions are specified using %mode and %worlds declarations and verified using %total declarations. Totality assertions are useful for verifying properties of object-language judgments. Additionally, Twelf's ability to verify totality assertions is used to prove general metatheorems.
Example totality assertions
Consider the following LF signature, which defined addition on natural numbers:
nat : type. z : nat. s : nat -> nat. plus : nat -> nat -> nat -> type. plus-z : plus z N2 N2. plus-s : plus (s N1) N2 (s N3) <- plus N1 N2 N3.
A type family such as plus defines a relation among its indices, where indices are related iff their instance of the family is inhabited by an LF term. For example, plus defines a relation between three terms of type nat. The terms (s (s z), s z, s (s (s z))) are related by this relation (because 2 + 1 = 3), but the terms (z, s z, s (s (s z))) are not.
Totality assertions are one class of statements about LF type families. A totality assertion for a type family is specified by designating some index positions as inputs and others positions as outputs. We call this specification the mode of the totality assertion. Given a mode specification, the totality assertion asserts that for all inputs, there exist outputs that stand in the relation. Using plus as an example, if we designate the first two positions as inputs and the third position as an output, this specifies the following totality assertion:
- For all N1:nat and N2:nat, there exist N3:nat and D:plus N1 N2 N3.
That is, the sum of any two natural numbers exists. Designating instead the first position as output and second and third positions as inputs defines the following totality assertion:
- For all N2:nat and N3:nat, there exist N1:nat and D:plus N1 N2 N3.
Of course, this totality assertion is false, as N3 - N2 might not be a natural number.
A totality assertion for an LF type family corresponds with the standard notion of totality for the relation defined by the family. Proving a relation total is different from showing that the relation defines a function, as the outputs of a total relation are not necessarily unique—the relation may relate particular inputs to more than one collection of outputs.
We may prove a totality assertion by induction on canonical forms. For example, we can prove the first above totality assertion by induction on N1:nat.
The above examples consider only terms that are well-typed without mentioning LF variables. In general, it is useful to state totality assertions about all terms that are well-typed in any LF context in a particular world, which is a set of LF contexts. Thus, a totality assertion is specified by both a mode declaration and a world declaration.
The page on %worlds presents an example totality assertion in non-empty contexts.
- This page's description of totality assertions was extracted from Proving totality assertions about the natural numbers in the tutorial Proving metatheorems with Twelf. Read that introduction to learn how to prove totality assertions using Twelf, and how to use totality assertions to mechanize proofs of more general metatheorems.